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Despite the occasional blush at reading my former ego's sometimes overeager prose I had to conclude that I have neither the time nor, really, the inclination to do so. Total land mass is They are placed squarely on the ground, built from wood, the roofs are tiled and, not least, they are small approximately 30 m2. As regards dress and appearance, if one goes bare-footed to town carrying kerontong a large plaited basket strapped to one's back with bark string , wearing seluar kulor home-sewn fly-less trousers which are tied around one's waist and end just below one's knees , one is immediately recognisable as 'orang Air Abik'. The day he was supposed to 'sit down on top of a coconut' 25 duduk diatas buah kelapa he left Gunung Muda in a hurry and pulang Mapur with relief.

TÉLÉCHARGER HYPNOTICK HOOK V GRATUIT. Fidèlement je porte ma croix, malgré toutes les morsures des serpents et des chiens En. But better, shell out the $50 bucks or so per volume to buy the Pleiade edition and read Proust from a real book His hypnotic prose does not seem well-suited to​. to buy the Pleiade edition and read Proust from a real book His hypnotic prose does not seem well-suited to a digital format. 2 people found this helpful.

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Just follow the On: Published on Oct 9, Carol Stiles: What writes the hgwc crossfire of the Philippines? Balta no estuvo en Chile en hgwc crossfire ph download podras. Pardo ha sido Need a new password? Go to support. Thirdly, having no fixed groups other than conjugal families such as clans and lineages they lack the notion of land having a genealogical complexion. They recognise private property, but as is common among swidden agriculturalists this is absolute only as regards the fruits of one's labour and merely temporal as regards land for a further qualification on this issue cf.

All manners of productive activity can be, and are, freely taken up by outsiders i.


Malays and ethnic Chinese ; be it agriculture, hunting, fishing, or gathering. My impression is, however, that the non-Lom in the area Muslim Malays employed in the tin mines and Chinese whose economy is based more on cash crops than subsistence agriculture are not much engaged in swidden agriculture.


For the purposes of land carrying capacity in terms of swiddens, therefore, the population density of 3. What this means exactly is one of the core issues of the present work and one I shall return to repeatedly. Administratively speaking, the Lom reside in either of two kampung villages : Air Abik and Pejam. Residential practice, however, is far more complex than that.

The spatial dispersion associated with the swidden agriculture they practice, combined with an exceptionally poor soil quality, account for a scattering of hamlets and single dwellings in which many households spend most of their time.


The geographical and administrative distribution of the Lom also corresponds to differing ecological adaptations. That is to say, the Lom in Gunung Muda — chiefly centred around the forest village Air Abik — grow dry rice, cassava, and other tubers as staples; banana, pepper and pineapple as typical cash crops.

The Lom village in Gunung Pelawan; Pejam, is a rather recent seashore settlement only 7 households were established in the early s. Though the majority still grow dry rice in swiddens and every household grows tubers and fruits, the backbone of the shore economy is coconut production plantations covering an estimated hectares and concomitant pig husbandry. Maritime resources are a vital concern to these villagers. The language spoken by the Lom is a very distinct dialect of Malay by some linguists held to constitute a separate language, cf.

Holle's linguistic map and Salzner's work on Indo-Pacific languages the principal features of which are a vocabulary largely consisting of local terms and an unusually rapid and syncopated speech-pattern Smedal Malays from near-by Belinyu less than ten kilometres from the Lom village Air Abik assured me that they understand very little when overhearing Lom speakers in conversation with each other.

Importantly, over the last ten years each of the two Lom settlements have been subject to considerable attention and socio-economic assistance from the Indonesian government. My chief desktop hypothesis when embarking on fieldwork was that since the two Lom settlements exploit differing ecological niches, chances would be that variant cognised models would develop and consequently either obviate intra- and inter-community discourse or gradually lead towards two culturally distinct communities.

Air Abik — a brief glimpse Kampung Air Abik is situated about nine kilometres southeast of Belinyu on the northeastern promontory of Bangka. This village, the aforementioned housing scheme in local parlance: the proyék was built in The identically designed houses identically designed all over Indonesia lie exactly 24 metres apart and 19 metres from the road on either side of it.

There are some 80 houses including a school, teacher's lodgings and a house for local representatives of the Department for Social Affairs for a nominal population of about individuals. House design represents a break with tradition in several respects. They are placed squarely on the ground, built from wood, the roofs are tiled and, not least, they are small approximately 30 m2.

Traditionally built houses are stilted and raised from the ground by a metre or so, the walls are made from bark, the roof from palm leaves and they can easily be enlarged as needs arise. The single most important consequence of the novel design is probably that maintenance and repair of the roof in particular now costs money.

The poor state of many of the houses may be the result of this, or of poor construction, or of both. Map 3: Northeast Bangka To my eyes the village, built seven years prior to my arrival, appears unkempt and far from prosperous. Some of the houses have been permanently abandoned, others temporarily so. Many households keep semi permanent houses near their swiddens and stay there especially during labour-intensive sequences of the agricultural cycle.

Thus the exact number of people actually residing in the village at any one time varies greatly. The road through the village from Gunung Muda to Silip constitutes an alternative route between Belinyu and the larger towns to the south Sungailiat and Pangkal Pinang much favoured by drivers when the main macadamised road becomes excessively potholed, particularly during and after the monsoon. Seasonally, therefore, there is an appreciable increase in the load of heavy traffic on what is basically a simple, unpaved forest-road.


Pejam — a brief glimpse The other Lom village, Pejam, consists primarily of Lom who settled on the beach stretching between Cape Samak and Cape Tengkalat some 20 kilometres north of Air Abik.

This move came about rather gradually as people from the Air Abik area found it too time-consuming to plough through the jungle in order to tend their coconut plantations established some 80 years ago. Pejam consists of two rather different settlements. The first of these comprises some 40 houses spread out the entire length of the 8 kilometres long beach stretching from Cape Samak to Cape Tengkalat.

The other is the aforementioned proyék, situated 2 kilometres northwest of this beach, initiated by the authorities and provisionally completed in Houses here are of the same size and design as those in Air Abik except that here the roofs are made from corrugated iron. Like Air Abik it comprises some 80 houses: including a school, teachers' living quarters and a communal house balai.

Unlike Air Abik it appears two years after its completion inhabited and if not prosperous, less squalid.

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Prior to the proyék construction period a new road was built to Pejam. Formerly the village was hard to reach by vehicles other than motorcycles and four-wheel-drive 'jeeps'. But there is still little traffic on the road, firstly because it ends at the village, secondly because none of the inhabitants have cars and only a few have motorcycles, and thirdly because there is no public transportation service.

Thus, the fact that there now exists a well made road connecting Pejam to neighbouring villages appears — at least for the time being — to be of slight importance to the villagers themselves.

The proyék is intended to house all villagers and plans exist to expand the new village to a total of at least 90 houses. However, only one of the pondok traditional house spaced out in the coconut orchards on the beach has so far been permanently evacuated and many beach-dwellers spend only a couple of nights per month in their government-built houses.

The Lom theme The interweaving of adat custom, 'belief' and an inventory of taboos , myth and history constitutes the backdrop against which the present-day situation of the Lom must be seen. I think it is opportune, therefore, now to sketch the background to the relative isolation in which the Lom of the past chose to live — indeed, to a considerable extent still choose — in spite of government commitments to educate and lead them towards becoming participating Indonesians.

In important respects this fusion of history and ideas provides the context within which investigations of Lom attitudes should be situated. The isolation of the Lom dates back at least to the late eighteenth century when Bangka was still ruled by the Sultan of Palembang.

In the earliest part of the nineteenth century the already drastically decimated population suffered heavily from a series of smallpox epidemics. It is estimated that over a period of thirty years approximately ninety percent of the population were either abducted or dead Horsfield, The mid-nineteenth century saw a number of local rebellions against the Dutch colonial power after which a relatively calm period followed until the Japanese invasion in The subsequent couple of years are still vividly recalled by today's grand-parental generation as a period of terrible hunger; for over a year, rice — Southeast Asia's staple par excellence — was unavailable.

The years following the Japanese capitulation were characterised by the renewed attempt by the Dutch to seize control over the Indonesian archipelago and were not altogether peaceful. Most recently, the aborted alleged coup and its aftermath of shook the island.

On this backdrop of violence — whether it be perpetrated by those in power or by those in opposition; by pirates, army commanders, rebels or indeed by non-discriminating epidemics — it is not surprising that the word most frequently employed by the Lom when they discuss encounters with strangers is 'fear' takut. Neither can it be surprising that they behave in a guarded manner when an anthropologist attempts to elicit their ideational models; their adat.

Implicit problems While not wishing to exaggerate the nature of the obstacles to understanding the Adat Mapur it is germane to stress that an intrinsic aspect of Lom traditional custom is the general unwillingness — or perhaps more correctly, the inability — on the part of the villagers to discuss matters they consider sensitive.


Outsiders primarily Bangka Muslim Malays and to some degree ethnic Chinese frequently refer to the Lom in derogatory terms such as 'primitive', 'lazy', 'ignorant', 'godless', 'dirty pork eaters' who, as if this were not sufficiently stigmatising, 'possess black magic'. As I just mentioned it is only to be expected, therefore, that the Lom are on their guard when confronted with an anthropologist attempting to investigate their way of thinking.

The particulars of the Lom cosmology, especially, presented problems — both in the field and afterwards. While I shall present this cosmology in the detail I am finally able to in a separate chapter I take the opportunity here to summarise parts of an argument spelled out more fully, and far more provocatively, elsewhere Smedal n.

In important respects the view I shall suggest informs both data acquisition and interpretation and is to do with what I have called the problem of 'differential cultural competence'. The core of my concern is the general absence of anthropologists' concern regarding, to be blunt, the validity of informants' statements — whether they pertain to aspects of native culture that constitute High Knowledge, or to the 'imponderabilia of everyday life' which Malinowski alerted the profession to.

Which informants' statements? Perhaps an anthropologist's account of any one cultural logic is potentially recognisable by just a few members of the society investigated, viz.

But if most members of a culture are content to leave the Big Questions to those who show a particular interest in them, if High Knowledge is not generally coveted, what then? What status do we, as social scientists, give to the restricted profound, complex, ornate, complete and the general simple, incomplete native models respectively?

My suspicion is that we, for obvious reasons are we not, as Keesing says, "dealers in exotica"? After all, inchoate exotica are hardly the stuff monographs are made of. This is why, perhaps, that after reading anthropological monographs one may be left with the impression that somehow it is simpler to understand a simple society than it is a complex one.

The 'natives' rarely come across to us as having problems understanding their own culture. What I am attempting to argue, therefore, is that specialist reflected, elaborate and 'common-folk' indifferent, rudimentary versions both be presented in the anthropologist's account. Or, alternatively, that it is made clear — if indeed it is the case, and it is the case in much of the present work — that the account is based on certain elite information or interpretations not generally circulating among the public.

I should also like to mention, on a more familiar note, that one's research may indicate that 'differential cultural competence' is co-variant with stratified control over information, interpretations and symbols; in a word: power. Keesing, for example, in the paper quoted above which is a critical examination of the 'symbolic' or 'interpretive' anthropology usually associated with the writings of Clifford Geertz has pointed out that " Even in classless societies, who knows what becomes a serious issue.

An anthropology that takes cultures to be collective creations, that reifies them into texts and objectifies their meanings, disguises and even mystifies the dynamics of knowledge and its uses. It is true that a disregard for the relationship between power and knowledge is tantamount to professional negligence. But no matter how precise one's conceptual apparatus for eliciting power relations or modes of domination may be there can be no a priori guarantee that reality will, as it were, succumb to finely tuned intellectual subtleties.

What I am contending here is just that one cannot postulate that the competent, the ones 'in the know', wield more power than the incompetent. Whether they do or not depends on the adequacy of their competence as regards the manipulation of actual material or symbolic structures that are socially valued.

In other words: We must accept that certain types of cultural competence — no matter how highly valued they may be in themselves — may be totally irrelevant as far as power or domination is concerned. But as Bloch has argued this is an outcome of confusing cognition with ideology. The above remarks are prompted by my problems to communicate with the Lom about those aspects of their life that I considered absolutely vital to their history and continued existence as a distinguishable group.

Whenever I approached matters I hoped would cast some light on the way the Lom view the world, themselves, and their relation to other groups I seemed to get nowhere. Initially for a much longer period than I like to recollect, actually I was puzzled by this.

To reiterate, the Lom comprise a mere total of some individuals, including infants. Before and during fieldwork I thought probably naïvely, as I would think today that such a small and possibly pressured society would be collectively — and verbally, when questioned — conscious of its place in cosmos, its historical or mythical origins, its relations to nature, animals, and human neighbours.

Geertz, after all, has assured us that culture is a 'collective creation'. More than anything I was certain that the Lom, again collectively, would give a fair amount of consideration to the fact that they are the only non-Islamic Malay-speaking group remaining on Bangka, perhaps within the vast area including Belitung, the Lingga archipelago and the islands off the Sumatran east coast.

My initial puzzled disappointment when I first began broaching the subject was soon to turn into dismay. Almost all prospective informants i. The invariable answer I got to my probes was "nta:" "I don't know" , or, when I asked about a cultural specific I had got wind of, "la: ilang" "it doesn't exist anymore". For a long time I blamed myself for this and thought that there had to be inroads I had overlooked, that I had inadvertently offended someone and word had got around warning people not to talk to me about 'important matters', that I had blatantly disqualified myself by having proved my incorrigible stupidity, etc.

But I finally concluded that the Lom rarely talk about these issues and that they actually spent more time talking to me about them in their guarded ways than they did between themselves.

I still have not totally convinced myself that my hunch for an explanation for their taciturnity is correct. In spite of this I submit, however tentatively, that most Lom have a somewhat vague knowledge of their own culture and that they fear, also somewhat vaguely, repercussions if they give inaccurate accounts of it.

But I still harbour remnants of a nagging feeling that they may communicate about what I take to be 'important matters' in passing and metaphorical allusions undetected my me for, among others, linguistic reasons. The above is simply a plea for anthropology as a humble and continuing quest for the substantive variation of human cultures rather than an academic laboratory exercise in the pursuit of order, cerebral or otherwise.


I am aware of recent academic trends postulating that ethnographies are false creations by virtue of their existence and that the only way to approach Tyler for a bafflingly verbose version of this view.

While these aspirations may be laudable in the most general sense possible there are, as I see it, at least two considerations that can be made as to why we ought to proceed with caution along these lines. First, I have not yet understood how we are to determine whose and what kind of mind perhaps that of a Norwegian anthropologist in his thirties?